The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms specifically addresses the rights of individuals who have been detained by police or charged with a crime. If the police detain or arrest you, then you have a right to be told the reason why. The charter also states that everyone "has a right to be secure against unreasonable search or seizure."
If at any point before, during or after an arrest your charter rights are violated, then the charge against you may be challenged on those grounds. With these matters in mind, let's consider a number of other rights that could be violated by police or prosecutors.